When the Apollo Missions were executed in the 1960s, scientists had very limited knowledge about the geology of the moon and the various geologic processes that contributed to its current make up. A number of scientific studies have analyzed the measurements taken, photographic record, rock samples and the results show that the Moon still has much to offer scientists and the knowledge gained will likely lead the world space programs into the future.
In selecting places to drill, what scientists look for is an internal cavern where liquids might get trapped and held or where crystals may form. In modeling the formation of the Moon, scientists believe that bits of matter stuck together like a snow ball until it became quite large. Eventually, the Moon collided with Earth and then caught in an binary orbit. When the moon cooled, the outer layer called the mantle sealed hot matter inside. Here are some of the places where that outer layer was broken by meteor impacts and maybe left space for hydrothermal or other liquids to seep through, alter mineral chemistry and collect or bear unusual mineral deposits:
Fractured Crater Bottom
According to Basilevsky etal, several craters including Gassendi, Taurentius, and Petavius have floors characterized by tectonic fractures with a mound at the center where magma has uplifted the floor and slowly cooled. On earth, these are often the sources of granite and diorite which is often associated with zircon and magnetite and molybdenum which has a lubricating effect that might be useful for drilling and which can be associated with the platinum family of metals.
Volcanic Dome / Shield Volcano / Maar Volcano
In cases where there have been multiple impacts, the moon’s crust was fractured and lava heated by radiation release seeped up impact faults, and followed a dike outward. Where the lava could reach the surface, domes grew up and cooled. Five lunar domes in Mare Undarum, situated in a major trough concentric to the Crisium basin have varying ages and crystallization rates i.e meaning different inner chemical composition as well as two other locations with dome suites including Mare Humorum and Oceanus Procellarum.
Lava Tubes and Lava Channels
According to Leveille etal, water can build up in lava tubes and then be a source of life on Mars as wells as the moon as well as potential locations for human habitation since they provide protection against solar radiation. On Earth, most lava tubes are devoid of life except where they are exposed to the atmosphere. The area between Crater Posidonius and Crater Plinius in the Eastern Mare Serenatis has a sinuous ridge like a lava tube. Crater Posidonius has an uplift floor.
Reiner Gamma Area of Magnetic Anomaly
According to Geophysical Research Letters, the Reiner Gamma Magnetic swirls are an area of magnetization that has never been experience before in nature. The area on the moon has high albedo (good reflectance) and appears very bright, as if there has been no aging. The magnetosphere over the area protects it from solar radiation. The area is believed to be caused by a possible comet impact at Imbrium and it is ejecta from that collision. High magnetic areas are associated with iron-bearing alloys.
The Ina Structure in the Lacus Felitatus region of the moon, showed recent geologic activity on the moon, a spot where according to Peter Schulz, outgassing occurred in the last 10 million years and may still be continuing, with potential releases of gas including carbon dioxide or water.
South Pole Aitken Basin
The South Pole Aitken Basin is believed to have ice deposits where the sun never shines. It’s also of interest because of the exposure of deep lunar materials in several places and also because of having more recent meteor activity than sampled before.
NASA drew up prototype designs for a deep drill apparatus in 1989 and has since evaluated whether various locales on the moon were best handled through the use of an impact, by a robot like the Mars Rover or by a team of scientists.
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 Ruth Ziethe, K. Seiferlin, H. Hiesinger, “Duration and extent of lunar volcanism: Comparison of 3D convection models to mare basalt ages”, Planetary and Space Science, Jun 25, 2008
 A.T. Basilevsky, H. U. Keller, A. Nathues, U. Mall, H. Hiesinger, M. Rosiek, “Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer”, Planetary and Space Science, Sep 6, 2004
 Raffaello Lena, Christian Wohler, Maria Teresa Bregante, Paolo Lazzarotti, Stefan Lammel, “Lunar domes in Mare Undarum: Spectral and morphometric properties, eruption conditions and mode of emplacement”, Planetary and Space Science, Jan 28, 2008
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 Dr. Tony Phillips, NASA, “Is the Moon Still Alive”, Nov. 9, 2006, www.science.nasa.gov
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