Chapter One: A History of Insults
Michael Luther King was born on January 15, 1929, and when he got older he decided to change his name to Martin. One of his heroes was a man named Martin Luther who lived during the 1500’s, when the Catholic Church was very powerful. The leaders of the church preached that a person would go to Hell if his or her sins were not forgiven, and the only way to have one’s sins forgiven was by making a donation to the church. This rule was fine for those who had the money to pay a priest for his blessing, but what would become of those who had nothing? It didn’t seem right to Martin that a good man could be denied a place in Heaven just because he was poor. To make matters worse, many priests were using the donation money to fund their lavish lifestyles while the faithful followers were starving. Martin Luther, a Catholic monk, wrote a long letter detailing all of the unfair practices the church should change, and nailed it right to the front door. When the leaders of the church ignored Martin’s complaints, he started a whole new religion. In the 1500’s it was very dangerous to say anything against The Catholic Church, and many who tried were imprisoned or murdered. Centuries later, a young man named Michael Luther King changed his name to Martin Luther King in honor of his brave hero.
The story of Dr. Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement begins with America’s past as a slaveholding nation. Today, most countries have realized it is terribly wrong to own another human being, but until the end of the 1700’s slavery was a common practice throughout the world. In order to explain themselves, American slave owners would say black people, or “negroes,” as they were known at the time, were not really human. There were even studies done on the subject, concluding the African brain was smaller than the Caucasian (a fancy way of saying “white”), and slaves were better off having a “master,” because they didn’t have the ability to care for themselves and needed to be told what to do. Sometimes, people blindly go along with an unfair custom because it has always been that way, and it can take a long time before enough people argue for change.
In 1896, just 33 years before Martin was born, there was a very important Supreme Court case called, “Plessy versus Ferguson.” The court ruled it was fair to have one train car set aside for white people and another for black people, as long as the train cars were the same. The court described it as, “separate but equal.” This ruling opened the door to segregation, and before long, there were different bathrooms, water bubblers, restaurants, stores, and schools. Fun places, like the zoo or a public swimming pool were open on most days for white people, and black people were only allowed to go on days when there was a sign displayed saying, “COLORED.”
The Supreme Court ruled that the facilities were supposed to be equal, but they weren’t. The schools the white kids went to were clean and new, while the schools for black kids were falling apart. The black schools got the used textbooks when the white schools were ready to throw them away. Everywhere they went, African Americans were made to feel as if they were less important than white people. In some places there was a rule saying black people couldn’t go outside after dark, but whites were allowed to go out whenever they chose. If people of both races went to the same place, like a movie theater, the blacks would have to stay in one area, away from the whites. Attitudes, especially in the south, hadn’t changed much since the days of slavery, and many whites believed all African Americans were stupid, dirty, and criminal.
There had been a disagreement on the subject of slavery way back when The Constitution was being written. Northern states were against slavery, but the southern states wouldn’t give it up, because rich plantation owners didn’t want to pay people to pick cotton or harvest tobacco; it was much cheaper to buy a slave and make him or her work for free. Even though the leaders in the north thought slavery was wrong, they had to agree to keep slavery legal if they wanted all the states to be united.
There were some slaves who were able to escape from the slaveholding land in the south, to the free land in the north with the help of people like Harriet Tubman, a remarkable woman who brought her people to freedom by way of The Underground Railroad. Harriet would lead the runaways through the forest by night, and by day they would sleep in the homes or barns of kind people who wanted to help them to freedom. There were many people, called abolitionists, who recognized that slavery was a terrible injustice. A white abolitionist caught helping a slave escape could have been fined or even imprisoned, but Harriet was African American, and if she had been caught, she would certainly have been killed. She was a true soldier for what she believed in, risking her life to free hundreds of her people.
Finally, Abraham Lincoln became president of the United States of America and made slavery illegal by signing the Emancipation Proclamation. The states in the south refused to follow the new law, and decided to break away to form a new government, with a new leader who would allow slavery. They called their new land the Confederate States. Because The Constitution says states are not allowed to secede from the Union, President Lincoln was forced to send in the army. This was the beginning of The Civil War, in which, more American’s would die than any other war America has participated in.
It is a policeman’s job to protect and serve, but when Martin Luther King Jr. was a boy, the policemen wouldn’t help a person of color. If you were to magically transport back to the 1950’s, everyone you met would be excited and amazed by your stories of computers and cell phones, but they would angrily call you a liar when you told them about African American policemen in America. Your parents, and especially your grandparents, never thought they would live to see an African American president of the United States. During Martin Luther King Jr.’s lifetime, the rules were not the same for everyone; if a white person were to hit a black person, the police would likely laugh and cheer, but if the black person were to hit back to defend himself, he would be in for big trouble. It is a good thing America is a very different place, today.
Martin Luther King wanted to be a preacher like his father, his grandfather, and his hero Martin Luther. He went to college to study theology, the study of religion, and how to teach others about God.
To the African American in the early 1900’s, church was the one place outside of his home where he could feel at peace. He could be with others who were experiencing the same heartbreak. He would talk about his problems and listen to the sorrows of his neighbors. Sometimes, just knowing he wasn’t alone in his troubles made things just a little easier. And then, the choir would begin to sing, and for just a moment the world would become bright and happy.
Martin listened to all of the problems the people in his church were having. They were sad because they were always being treated unfairly. It didn’t seem as if things were ever going to change. Nobody cared about their troubles. White people just didn’t like Martin and his followers, though they had never done anything wrong. Thousands of African Americans served in almost every American war, and many of their sons died in the name of a country that would not accept them as important. The Constitution clearly states all Americans deserve equal protection under the law. This wasn’t equal!
Martin Luther King Jr. realized he had to go back to school to learn how to deal with the problem, so he headed off to Boston to earn is doctorate in theology. In school he learned about a man named Gandhi. Gandhi was a religious man who thought the only way to change the world was through “nonviolent resistance.” This means to stand your ground, but do not hit, no matter what. Martin Luther King began to think about Gandhi’s ideas. He thought about the situation at home. The police were using violence, and they had guns, clubs, and even dogs. Martin knew if his people were to use violence against the police the situation would only get worse. Gandhi made a big change in India with the practice of nonviolent resistance, and Martin believed there could be a change in America, too.
When Martin was studying in Boston he met a beautiful girl named Coretta Scott. They were both in college, far away from home, and they became friends. Coretta and Martin talked about the way African Americans were being treated, and how to make things better. The more they talked about their goals and dreams, the more they grew to love each other. Coretta loved Martin because he was smart and brave, and Martin loved Coretta’s strength and character. They imagined the happy life they would have together, and married in 1954. Before long, Martin graduated, and they moved to Alabama, where they had a little girl, Yolanda.
While Martin was busy starting his new family, the United States Supreme Court had another important case. A group of people were suing states all over the country because the segregated school system was not fair. Remember the U.S. Supreme Court case, “Plessey v. Ferguson,” in 1896? In that case, the court ruled it was fair to segregate whites into one place and blacks into another, as long as both places were equal. People all over the country decided to file law suits because the segregated schools were not equal. When the judges saw all of the similar cases on their docket, they decided to combine them all into one big case called, “Brown versus Board of Education.” A group called National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was working very hard for civil rights, and all of the members were very excited to have a case go all the way to the Supreme Court, but they weren’t sure if they were going to be able to win. They sent their best lawyers to help Mr. Brown, and the other 200 people who had gotten together to fight segregation in schools. The lawyers presented evidence to the Supreme Court Justices showing how different the white schools where from the black schools, showing pictures of cracks in the walls, chipping paint, and broken windows. The judges didn’t like what they saw. Then, the lawyers told the judges all about the outdated textbooks and lack of school supplies. Witnesses came to testify in court about what it was like to go to a black school. They never had money to go on any field trips, or to purchase gym equipment. The judges in the Supreme Court realized the segregated schools were not equal, and ruled them unconstitutional. They wanted to make sure every American, no matter their color, had the same opportunity for an education. If all of the black kids had to go to a dirty, broken down schools, without proper supplies, they would not have the chance to learn as much as the kids who went to the better schools. Throughout America, black people celebrated their first victory since the ending of slavery.
In the 1800’s, Lincoln’s Union Army succeeded in winning The Civil War, thereby officially ending slavery, but it was quite some time before the last slave was to be free. Think about where you live. Who enforces the law? Let’s pretend all the police in your town think it is O.K. to steal. They can’t understand why there is even a law against stealing, so whenever they get a call about a theft they ignore it. This is what happened when slavery was made illegal. All of the leaders and lawmakers in the south thought it was a stupid law. There had been slaves for as long as they could remember, and they didn’t see anything wrong with it. All of the governors, mayors, and police were white, so slave owners continued to hold African Americans as slaves because nobody would enforce the law.
The members of the NAACP were very happy about the judge’s decision in, “Brown versus Board of Education,” but they knew their history, and it would take a long time before the town officials enforced it.
Meanwhile, Martin was happy preaching for the church, just like his father. He loved his wife, and his little daughter filled him with pride. But Martin was sad, too. He looked at his pretty baby, and wished she would never have to feel second-rate because of her color. She was so perfect and innocent; Martin prayed she would live in a world where she could be proud of who she was. Martin loved babies of all colors, and he couldn’t understand how a white person could look at his baby girl and think she was ugly, or dirty, or stupid. He vowed he would change things for Yolanda, but it seemed like such an impossible job, he didn’t know where to start.
One day, Rosa Parks was riding the bus in Alabama. A white person got on the bus, and the driver told Rosa to give up her seat. Rosa was tired, and didn’t want to move. Besides, she paid the same bus fare as the white person; why did she have to give up the seat she was sitting in first? She told the driver she was not going to move. The driver got very angry and called the police and Rosa was arrested.
When Martin and his friends heard what happened to Rosa, they wondered what they could do. It wasn’t fair for the police to arrest Rosa for sitting; she wasn’t hurting anyone. That Sunday, the church bustled with people voicing their opinion on the matter.
“I’m going to go beat up that stupid driver,” said one angry man.
“It isn’t going to do any good,” said another, sadly, “the rules are the rules, and Rosa broke them. Besides, if you beat him up, you’ll end up in jail with her.”
“But the rule isn’t fair,” said a young boy, “We should ask the bus company to change it.”
“I wish it were that easy, son, but the company doesn’t care about what we want. They only care about our money.”
“Well then, I’m not giving them any more of my money until they change the rule!” Exclaimed the young boy, proudly.
“That’s nice for you, but I don’t have a choice in the matter. I need to ride the bus to get to work,” said a sad lady standing nearby.
“I’d rather give you a ride to work, myself, than see you get on another bus before they change that rule!” said another.
Martin and the other pastors thought a boycott sounded like a great idea. A boycott is when a group of people get together and decide not to use something. If every black person in Montgomery, Alabama stopped taking the bus, the company would be sure to lose an awful lot of money. The company would have to listen, then. Martin listened with pride as those who had cars offered to drive those who didn’t where they needed to go. All of the faces that usually seemed so sad were brightened with the first light of hope.
Chapter Two: Nonviolent Resistance
The Montgomery Bus Boycott began to attract a lot of attention. It had been a month, and city commissioners were meeting with Martin and his group to discuss the situation. Finally someone was paying attention! The commissioners refused to change the rule, and ordered Martin to end the boycott, even threatening to charge him criminally. At least they were finally paying attention! Newspapers from all over the country were printing stories about the boycott, and Martin knew the commissioners would have to listen soon enough.
Then, a scary thing happened. A bomb went off at Martin’s home while Coretta and Yolanda where there. Martin thanked God his family wasn’t hurt, but he began to wonder if the boycott was too dangerous. Lately, a lot of angry white people had been threatening Martin’s life, but he couldn’t bear the thought of something happening to his wife and baby girl. His heart felt heavy with failure as he spoke to Coretta about giving up.
“Don’t you dare give up; Yolanda and I are just fine, and we are going to be even better when things change. Things might just have to get worse before they get better, so we can’t allow them to scare us into quitting.”
Martin looked at his wife. She was just as beautiful as she was brave, and he knew one day Coretta was going to have her dream; he was going to make sure of it!
All of a sudden, Martin heard yelling. When he went to the window he saw a group of angry neighbors and friends standing outside. They had heard about the bomb, and wanted to fight.
“Let’s go get them, right now!” screamed one angry man.
“Yeah!” echoed the crowd.
Martin went out on his porch to calm the group. He understood why they were angry, but two wrongs don’t make a right, and Martin knew violence would only bring more violence. Besides, he didn’t want any man’s wife and baby daughter to be in danger, even a white man. He told this to the crowd of people standing outside his home, and slowly, they began to settle. When Martin went back inside after everyone went home, he breathed a long sigh of relief and thanked God for helping him calm the crowd.
Thousands of people supported the bus company, and thousands of people supported the boycott. Finally, after almost a year, the rule was changed: African Americans no longer had to sit at the back of the bus or give up their seats to whites. Martin was on top of the world, he knew if they could change one bad rule, they could change them all. He, and all of the black people of America, were one step closer to the happy world of their dreams, and it felt like Christmas and New Year’s rolled into one. The Supreme Court had ruled segregation was unconstitutional, and now the law was beginning to be enforced. It might have been one bus company in one state, but one day, everything was going to be desegregated; Dr. King could feel it in his bones.
Many of Martin’s friends and co-pastors were happy about the busses becoming desegregated, but Martin reminded them of all the other mistreatments they were made to suffer. Yes, they could ride the bus in Alabama, but they still couldn’t go to White’s only restaurants, and they were still treated as inferior.
“Come on, Martin; let’s enjoy what we’ve accomplished. We have protested for so long. We should be able to relax,” said one of his fellow pastors.
“We cannot stop, now. America is paying attention to us, and we need to continue on with this fight until we are treated equal in every way. Nobody else is going to do this for us,” Martin explained.
“I agree that there is still much we have yet to accomplish, but wouldn’t it be a good idea to let them get used to the bus change? White folks are really angry we won; maybe we should wait for things to calm down before we move on to the next step,” offered another pastor.
“If we accept anything less than what is right, we will have lost. We cannot give up. I know we’re all worried about the safety of our family and friends, but fear is the most powerful tool of an oppressor. We are held back by our fear,” Martin warned, “We will not hand this legacy to our children!”
The celebration didn’t last long. Violence against blacks broke out all over Montgomery. A fifteen year old girl was attacked by five white men at a bus stop, a woman was shot in both legs while riding the bus, and shots were fired into Martin’s home. African Americans had never been able to feel safe outside of their homes, and now, they couldn’t feel safe inside their homes. They turned to their churches for strength and support. Throughout the city, the sounds of singing and encouragement rung out from the church windows.
Martin thought again about what they were trying to accomplish; a world where every person was judged by deeds, instead of appearance. It was as if every black person was forced to wear, “I am not as good,” across his or her forehead. He didn’t know why some white people hated black people so much, but he figured most of the problem was lack of knowledge. Most white people lived in all-white towns, and hardly ever came across any black people. There were few African Americans portrayed in movies, and the only roles available were either slave, servant, or worse, criminal. White people saw black people on the television news, and read about them in the newspaper only when crimes were committed. Martin Luther King trusted his fellow Americans. He loved white people. He loved every kind of people. He believed if white people would get to know black people-all the good stuff, too-white Americans would make sure black Americans received their civil rights.
Martin was sure about non-violence. When you hit someone, they stop listening. Martin wanted to make sure everyone heard his message. If one group of people hit, and the other group of people do not hit back, the first group of people should stop hitting. If the first group of people do not stop hitting, they are wrong. Martin knew this to be the truth, and he was counting on the fact that others would stand behind that truth once they realized what was going on.
Chapter Three: Pushing For Every Inch
Some of the white people in the south were very upset by the changes. Black people no longer had to stay separate on the busses, and now they were beginning to sit at the counters of, “WHITES ONLY” restaurants. The owners called the police. The police would tell the black person to leave the restaurant.
“Sir, I have done nothing wrong. I would just like to order a meal, please.”
The police officer would drag the African American out of the restaurant, and sometimes, arrest him or her. Every week, there were stories in church about a friend who got arrested. Martin would preach from the pulpit about truth and change. He spoke of a world where blacks and whites sat together at the dinner table as friends and equals. He didn’t know when that day would come, but if they did nothing, it never would. They decided to get together where everyone could see them and protest the way they were being treated. They made signs and walked through Montgomery holding hands. Sometimes, they would sing songs together, or tell stories.
The Freedom Riders would get on a bus in Alabama, where busses were desegregated, and ride to another state, where blacks still had to sit at the seats in the back of the bus, and give up the seat they were sitting in for a white person. Many white people were tremendously upset with the new trend toward desegregation, but some African Americans people were just as irritated, and thought Martin was a troublemaker.
“Things used to be fine! So, we had to sit at the back of the bus, or use different restrooms? At least white folks used to let me be. Now, every time I leave my house somebody’s bothering me; calling me, “nigger,” or trying to goad me into a confrontation. I just want to be left alone,” argued one angry man.
Martin didn’t listen to those who told him to quit. He gave sermons to the congregation about equality, and love of one’s fellow man. He told all of his friends to come with him on a march. American citizens have the right to protest something they don’t believe in. America was founded by men like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson revolting against their English King. The founding fathers thought the right to protest was very important, so Martin and his friends knew they had the right to protest peacefully. They painted large signs with phrases like, “We Are Human Beings!” to carry with them on the march. Martin always led the way, locking arms with leaders of other churches. Sometimes, one man would yell, “What do we want?!” and everyone would scream in unison, “Equality!!” Sometimes, hundreds of marchers would sing uplifting songs to drown out the sound of the angry bystanders.
People were outraged, and some were even scared when they saw a big group of African Americans marching down the street. They called the police, and the police got on the megaphone and yelled, “GO HOME NOW!”
None of the marchers listened to the police. They continued walking down the street and singing a song, as if they hadn’t heard. The Constitution says every American has the right to walk down the street, as long as they aren’t breaking the law. The people on the side of the road didn’t care what the Constitution said, and they started throwing rocks and bottles at the group. They were screaming, swearing, and spitting at the African Americans.
The police began to drag marchers to paddy wagons and take them to jail. The paddy wagon would fill, and the police could arrest no more, so they began to hit the protesters with their clubs. They brought in police dogs to bite the protesters. The police wanted the protesters to go home, but the protesters kept walking down the street. The African Americans were scared, but they began to sing louder. They sang together to give them bravery. They asked God to keep them safe. In their hearts, they felt a mighty pride.
That night, when the African Americans lay in their bed, they thought about the police. They thought about all of the angry white people on the side of the road. They thought about their children, and the feeling in their heart. They thought about the next march, and prayed to God for courage.
Then, something curious began to happen. People began to come from all over America to help Martin and his friends. Black people and white people! Religious leaders from all different congregations urged the members of their churches to open their hearts. All of America was beginning to notice the injustice occurring in the southern American states. Meanwhile, there was an important presidential election in the works. John F. Kennedy, a beloved hero of many Americans, began to talk about equality and civil rights issues. Though he came from a wealthy family, he had felt the sting of prejudice during his life. Many of the socialites in his home state of Massachusetts treated Kennedy as if he were second-class because of his Irish heritage.
The quest for equality turned out to be a slow process. Martin moved his family to Georgia, but African Americans all over the south began to call his office to tell about the injustices where they lived. Doctor King was willing to help all of them, and had to spend a lot of time away from his wife and growing family. Some city leaders stubbornly closed the parks, rather than integrate, and some libraries were only integrated after all of the chairs were removed. Despite the Supreme Court ruling, states like Georgia continued to have segregated schools. Some of Martins friends felt as if they were successful, but Martin felt as though they had accomplished very little after years of hard work.
Birmingham, Alabama was a city in big trouble. Bombs aimed at maiming civil rights protesters blasted throughout the city. The Commissioner of Public Safety was a prejudiced man, nicknamed, “Bull” Connor. He hated black people, and he refused to allow them equality in Birmingham. When people rose up to protest, Bull would open up the fire hydrants and pelt them with high-powered hoses. He called on police dogs to attack the protesters. All of America began to watch the unfair battle erupting in Birmingham. Martin went back to Alabama in order to help his fellow men with their struggle. Bull wouldn’t listen to the Supreme Court, or even the president. He believed in his heart, blacks and whites should continue to stay separate. He didn’t care if, “all men are created equal,” he thought black people were disgusting, dirty, and stupid, and he wanted absolutely nothing to do with them. He didn’t give a darn that most of the African Americans ancestors had been born here long before his ancestors stepped foot on American soil. He didn’t like anything about African American’s, or “niggers,” as he liked to call them.
Martin was arrested in Birmingham, as he had been arrested many times before, but this time was different. Martin was tired of struggling all of the time. He was tired of marching every day, while people who hated his kind swore and threw stones. He was weary of being worried after the safety of his family. He was worn-out from hearing all of his friend’s sad stories, and reading all of the mail from those far away who were suffering the same treatment. He took a scrap of paper and wrote a letter to all of his friends, especially those who kept telling him to be happy with the progress African Americans had already made, and wait for the government to pass equal rights laws. Martin may have had divine inspiration in his words, so eloquently were they written. He hit upon a profound truth that night in a Birmingham jail, and his words were enough to change the minds of many of those who were content with the way things were. Many white Americans weren’t paying attention to the civil rights struggle going on in the south because they were busy with their lives, taking care of their families, and getting through their day. Somehow, from a jail cell in Birmingham, Alabama, Martin found the words to sway the minds of millions who had been overlooking the far away struggle.
Children began to stay out of school to march and sing, and the police even arrested them. The jails became filled with protesters, young and old. Finally, against the wishes of town officials, store owners integrated their shops and agreed to hire African American employees.
Even the president was listening. President Kennedy was shocked, and sent the National Guard to help Martin and his friends. The National Guard is just like the army, but they always stay in America to protect American soil. They do whatever the president tells them to do; this is one of the reasons it is very important to think carefully about your vote. John F. Kennedy Jr. was a good president. He was fair, and he didn’t like to see people get hurt. He thought about the whole world, and what kind of place he wanted it to be.
The Kennedy family is a very important family in American history. The three brothers are John, Bobby, and Teddy. Robert, or Bobby as we American’s affectionately refer to him, was The Attorney General for The United States; the most powerful lawyer in all of America. Both of the older brothers were assassinated, John during a parade in Dallas, and Bobby in a hotel after a speech. Americans of every nationality and race came together to mourn the tragic death of President Kennedy, and later, his little brother; the world just didn’t seem as bright when good men were murdered for trying to do the right thing. Americans have truly loved some of our leaders, but we have also known feelings of anger or embarrassment towards some presidents. The United States of America is a constitutional democracy, which means we elect our leaders, and they have to follow The Constitution. American citizens get to decide who will be their president every four years, but we can vote for the same person twice in a row. When running for president, a candidate must choose his or her vice president to take over if the president is unable to continue, for any reason. When President Kennedy was assassinated, his vice president, Lyndon B. Johnson became president for the remainder of Kennedy’s term. African Americans were particularly upset when Kennedy was assassinated, not only because he was a great man, but also because he was helping them with their struggle. It was a relief to all when Johnson vowed to continue where Kennedy had left off and signed the Civil Rights Act on July 2, 1964.
In a perfect world, men like Dr. Martin Luther King and President Kennedy would grow to a ripe old age, and rock together slowly, side by side on the front porch, enjoying lemonade in the cool breeze, while watching their grandchildren play together and talking over the good old’ days. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who worked so tirelessly to make the world a better place, was shot and killed in 1968, but his commitment and strength gave every single American a better life. Martin’s heart was so big he was able to love those who hated him, and forgive those who treated him and his people so badly.
People are not perfect, and still, relations can be uncomfortable between the races. Color can be a difficult topic to discuss, and unless you have experienced prejudice first hand, there is no way to fully understand how it feels. Some African Americans are still angry about the treatment of the past, and some would say there is still inequality, today. A minority is any group of people, be it race, nationality, or even way of life, which is not the most powerful group. In America, whites are considered the majority, especially white males, but the truth is, almost every person fits into a minority group, somewhere along the line.
Some may choose to be angry because of the past, or cross because they may be mistreated at times, but those who choose to forgive others for their imperfections are, by far, the happiest and most productive. If you think about it, slavery was a common practice for thousands of years, and in less than two hundred years, the ancestor of a slave owner may work for the ancestor of a slave, or even choose to marry and have a family. Thousands of years have been overcome in a few short generations of people who want to bequeath the best possible world to their children, and their children’s children. The bravest people, off whose legacy we branch, are those like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who attain to share the joy with everyone.
America has become a place where a photograph or video depicting the events during the civil rights era brings an emotional reaction, like anger, shock, or embarrassment. One can’t imagine how African Americans must feel when they think about the unjust mistreatment they were forced to suffer as a people. Perhaps, they are really blessed, because they are lucky enough to have that special connection that only a people who have gone through such a struggle together can possibly know. Maybe it is time to try to look at things another way; all Americans are a people who share a special struggle, and then there are all living things on this Earth.
Nobody is perfect, even people like Harriet Tubman and Abraham Lincoln had times when they were mean, or hurt another person’s feelings. Everyone is entitled to mistakes. There is some evidence that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. plagiarized some of his important essays when he was in school, and technically, he isn’t a doctor because if he had been caught copying another person’s work, he would have been kicked out of school. Regardless of the circumstance, the facts are this: Martin’s numerous professors decided to award him his degree, so who is anyone to argue?
Business and information
All conversations are the imagination of the author for the purpose of portraying emotion.
Information and facts gathered from:
www.pbs.org The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, Freedom: A History of US,
www.unt.edu The Law and Politics Book Review/ Bull Connor. William Nunnelly. University of Alabama Press. 1991
www.historylearningsite John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights