Scientific exploration in the 21st century, with the most expensive and powerfully, energetic machines ever built, is revealing a hither to unknown and unexpected sub-nuclear realm. Hadron Particles composed of four and five quarks have been observed. With the discovery of tetra-quarks and penta-quarks a question must be asked. Are these just briefly existing four and five particle system oddities, that existed in the early beginnings of our universe shortly after the big bang or are they momentarily existing residues of the basic system components that all protons and neutrons are composed of? Quoting the authors of the penta-quark article above,” Evidence for new mesons discovered at BaBar, Belle and CLEO also suggest that the simple quark model is not adequate . It may require a paradigm shift for models of hadrons.”
Quark theory, proposed in 1963, has been the reigning paradigm for the nuclear standard model since 1967. Quark theory proposes that protons and neutrons are composed of three basic particles each, which come in two forms, one third negative charge for the down quark and two thirds positive charge for the up quark. The proton being two ups and a down quark, +2/3 plus +2/3 plus -1/3 = +3/3 = +1 positive charge. The neutron being one up and two down quarks, +2/3 plus -1/3 plus -1/3 = 0, no apparent external charge. The proton is assumed as being plus one relative to the electron being minus one. The particle charges are of equal magnitude but opposite charge polarity. Other than charge polarity, the mismatch between the two is that the mass of the proton is over 1863 times greater than that of the tiny electron. If nature held to these quark mathematics, then when an electron -1 annihilated with its antimatter twin, a positron +1 the results should be zero, but they aren’t. Two gamma-ray photons are usually the result, not zero.
The basic sub-nuclear model for Proton Cosmology was conceived over a decade later, in 1978. It proposes a four particle, synchronously oscillating, spheroid proton model. Though more complex in particle number than quark theory, it offers a viable, oscillating, dynamic charge, mechanism based on computer analyzed linear accelerator data, the known laws of electrodynamics and Einstein’s energy-mass formula. This model can describe the internal mechanics of the two different components of the atomic nucleus.