Given the position of trust that police officers hold in society, as well as the power they wield to incarcerate citizens, the public is alarmed and dismayed when police officers exhibit deviant behavior. This deviance can contribute to physical and mental health issues for the officer, relationship problems, criminal behavior, and even suicide. Moreover, it undermines public confidence in the police system. A literature review reveals that an officer’s routine work environment is actually the leading stressor, further compounding the effects of exposure to critical incidents. Using a systems theory approach to the problem, the paper identifies a number of leverage points outlined by Meadows (2008) and then proposes alterations to the police system aimed at reducing deviant behavior among officers.
Police officers hold a position of trust within society, acting as first-responders, peace-keepers, crime-solvers, and role models. They also hold the power to take away citizens’ freedom. It is alarming, then, to communities when their police officers misbehave. Accusations leveled against Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) Officer Jerry Piland, alleging use of excessive force against a biracial teenager, Brandon Johnson, in May of 2010 (The IndyChannel.com 2010) is just one of a string of disturbing incidents involving IMPD officers (Gillers and Tuohy 2010). The events surrounding the August 6, 2010, accident involving IMPD Officer David Bisard, which left one motorcyclist dead and two others critically injured, is another (Indianapolis Star 2010a). Small town police departments are not immune, either, as evidenced by Pittsboro, Indiana, Police Department Officer Scott Gabbei (Brilliant 2009) and Danville, Indiana, Police Department Officers Robert Cole (Roach 2007) and Jerry Cunningham (Coggeshall 2010) running afoul of the law in separate incidents (according to Hendricks County Public Records, Cole’s and Gabbei’s incidents resulted in criminal convictions; Cunningham has criminal charges pending at this time). Countless news stories can be found describing criminal acts allegedly committed by police officers, resulting in increasingly strained relations between police and the public they are sworn to protect (Rodriguez 2010; Miletich and Sullivan 2010; Rossi 2010). A lengthy history of police corruption is also well-documented (Mays and Ruddell 2008; Skogan and Meares 2004).
This paper examines, through a literature review, police officers’ work stressors and the deviant behavior associated with those stressors, and evaluates a hypothesis that police officers’ exposure to critical incidents is the main cause of deviant behavior. The hypothesis was developed, in part, after learning that IMPD Officer Bisard was one of the first two officers to arrive on the scene of a particularly grisly murder on Hovey Street in Indianapolis, where two women and two infants were shot to death in January of 2008. Based on Gershon et al’s (2009) findings that Baltimore Police officers self-report exposure to critical incidents as their leading work stressor, and that alcoholism is a negative behavior strongly associated with perceived work stress, a question arises as to whether Bisard’s exposure to this murder scene could have contributed to him turning to alcohol to cope, which, in turn, could have led, over the course of two years, to the appearance of fully functioning behavior after a fatal collision in which he allegedly tested at a 0.19% blood-alcohol concentration.
A systems approach is then used to propose leverage points for intervention in an effort to alleviate the problem of police deviance and restore the public’s trust in police officers.
II. Literature Review
Police Officer Stressors
While police officers may indicate that exposure to critical incidents is their leading job-related stressor (Gershon et al 2009), research shows that routine work environment and organizational stressors actually cause police officers the greatest amount of stress (Adams and Buck 2010; Gershon et al 2009; Maguen et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992), compounding the effects of exposure to critical incidents, and contributing to the potential for development of deviant behavior.
Marmar et al (2006) conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 198 first-responders in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake Interstate 880 freeway collapse, compared with 140 San Francisco Bay Area first-responders and 101 San Diego first-responders, to examine the effects of exposure to critical incidents (CI) on the development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They concluded that the 9% of sample characterized as having symptoms of PTSD reported greater CI exposure, greater emotional distress and dissociation during the CI exposure, greater perceived threat to their safety, and less preparation for the CI. While the study does not indicate how many police officers were in this sample, the authors did indicate that paramedics fared worse than police officers, given the EMT’s “longer and more intimate contact with injured survivors” (p. 4). The authors also conducted a cross-sectional study, detailed in the same article, of 747 police officers from New York and Bay Area departments, focusing on self-reported exposure to CIs and the development of PTSD symptoms. In this study, they determined that greater dissociation during the CI, lower social support, and sleep disturbances were strongly associated with PTSD symptoms.
Maguen et al (2009), through self-report questionnaires given to 180 officers in four urban police departments during academy training and then again a year later, found that routine work environment had the strongest association with the development of PTSD, beyond that of exposure to critical incidents. Though Maguen et al‘s sample size was rather small, Gershon et al (2009), in their statistical analysis of 1072 Baltimore Police officers’ responses to a survey, determined that lack of organizational fairness and job dissatisfaction were most significantly related to work stress. In contrast to the urban studies, Adams and Buck (2010) used on-line surveys to gain self-reports from 579 officers in twelve departments in Wisconsin and Illinois communities with fewer than 64,000 residents. They found that officers are subjected to stressors from organizational insiders, such as fellow officers and administration, as well as from organizational outsiders, such as the general public, victims, and offenders, which leads to turnover intent, psychological distress, and emotional exhaustion.
The most frequently identified stressors from organizational outsiders include unfair public criticism, disrespect from the public, and distorted media accounts of police incidents (Adams and Buck 2010; Gershon et al 2009; Maguen et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992; Jackson and Maslach 1982); hostile suspects and offenders (Adams and Buck 2010; McCafferty et al 1992); distraught victims (Adams and Buck 2010; Marmar et al 2006); unfavorable Court decisions, hostile attorneys, and an ineffective correctional system (Maguen et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992); and personal and family problems outside of the workplace relating to the demands and nature of police work (Adams and Buck 2010; Maguen et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992; Jackson and Maslach 1982).
Common stressors from organizational insiders include the sense that their work accomplishes nothing (McCafferty et al 1992; Jackson and Maslach 1982); ineffective workplace communication (Gershon et al 2009; Maguen et al 2009); rigid organizational structure and lack of organizational support (Gershon et al 2009; Maguen et al 2009); lack of career development and opportunities for promotion (Gershon et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992); excessive workload and paperwork (Adams and Buck 2010; Maguen et al 2009; Gershon et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992); and long or changing shifts and lack of time off work that affect officers’ family lives, social lives, eating, and sleep (Gershon et al 2009; Maguen et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992; Jackson and Maslach 1982).
Officers’ Responses to Stressors
How do police officers cope with these stressors from organizational insiders and outsiders? Many officers cite problem-solving methods and faith-based means of alleviating stress (Gershon et al 2009). Others find escape through athletics, recreation, and family activities. Others still find solace with coworkers, mentors, spouses, or family members.
Not all coping mechanisms are constructive, however. One common problematic method of dealing with stress is through simple avoidance, acting as if nothing is bothersome, even when the officer is greatly distressed (Maguen et al 2009; Gershon et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992). An officer’s desire to withdraw from social contact, rather than seek assistance for stress relief, leads to the officer pulling away from family, spouse, children, and friends, resulting in more isolation and decreasing the amount of social support necessary to assist the officer in relieving stress (Jackson and Maslach 1982), thus resulting in a reinforcing feedback loop.
Another coping method is surface acting-modifying behavior by “suppressing the emotion that is actually felt and then faking the appropriate emotion called for by the situation using facial expressions, tone of voice, and other methods” (Adams and Buck 2010, p. 1032). In their statistical analysis, Adams and Buck (2010) found that surface acting mediates the interaction between stress and turnover intent, psychological distress, and emotional exhaustion.
One step beyond surface acting is when the officer develops emotional numbing, dehumanizing citizens and perceiving them as the “enemy” (Gershon et al 2009; McCafferty et al 1992). This is a dangerous trait to develop on a number of levels. First, it fosters an “us vs. them” attitude toward the public (McCafferty et al 1992), which is met with a “them vs. us” attitude from the public-a reinforcing feedback loop. Second, it often results in heightened aggressiveness among officers when dealing with the public (McCafferty et al 1992), which can lead to use of excessive force, which then heightens the public’s disdain for the police-another reinforcing feedback loop. This may have been a factor impacting IMPD Officer Piland’s interaction with Brandon Johnson. Third, it causes problems at home, often resulting in officers being less involved with their families, displaying aggressiveness toward their spouses and children, and spending off-time away from home (Gershon et al 2009; Jackson and Maslach 1982). Emotionally numb officers develop an increased need for emotional stimulation, which can lead to casual sexual affairs, gambling, and other deviant behavior that generally doesn’t sit well with their spouses (McCafferty et al 1992). Problems at home lead to problems at work, which in turn fuel problems at home-a third reinforcing feedback loop. Officers find themselves feeling despair, alienation, isolation, futility, and hopelessness, with the potential to create the outflow of deviant behavior or, in a worst case scenario, officer suicide (McCafferty et al 1992).
Officers’ use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs to cope with stress is common. In Gershon et al (2009), one-third of the surveyed officers reported excessive drinking on occasion, 30% reported smoking tobacco products, 14% felt guilty about their alcohol consumption, and 14% reported blackouts while drinking. Jackson and Maslach (1982), in a survey study of 142 police officers and their wives, determined that “couples who use alcohol as a coping device are less happily married” (p. 74). Marmar et al (2006) found that 7.8% of their study sample of police officers were alcohol abusers or alcohol dependent, nearly 20% experienced significant negative life consequences as a result of their alcohol use, and around 15% reported heavy drinking within the past week. In addition, greater routine work stress, greater current psychiatric symptoms such as PTSD, and lower education among officers were related to “greater lifetime adverse consequences from alcohol use” (p. 9). Gershon et al (2009) also noted an increased level of stress among officers without college degrees.
Interestingly-especially given that the basis for the hypothesis of this paper was, in part, a speculation that Bisard’s arrival at the Hovey Street murder scene could have led to his alcohol abuse-research does not suggest that greater exposure to critical incidents and current PTSD symptoms are related to a subsequent increase in alcohol use (Marmar et al 2006).
McCafferty et al (1992) estimated that up to 25% of police officers in some departments are alcohol abusers. They further observed that “approximately 80% of [officers] attempting suicide were drinking alcohol at the time” and that “dissolution of marriage through divorce or an angry separation is the most common event preceding suicide in an alcoholic” (p. 234). They later state that “the general evidence is that police officers commit suicide at a rate higher than that of the general population” (p. 237). Their statements, however, are based solely on a psychiatry textbook and on an article published in 1981. Aamodt (2008) warns that misconceptions about police psychology are caused when beliefs are not supported by scientific evidence. Aamodt goes on to provide statistical evidence that police officers, when compared with similar demographics, actually have a lower rate of suicide than the general population. They also have divorce rates that are well below the national average. Given that Aamodt’s conclusions, which contradict the generalized statements made by McCafferty et al, are based on primary data sources, while the McCafferty et al statements are not, the 1992 study’s validity seems questionable.
A common contributing factor in officers’ stress levels is sleep disruption. Jackson and Maslach (1982) mentioned officers’ difficulty in sleeping at night despite apparent physical exhaustion. Marmar et al (2006) found that while critical incidents often lead to sleep-interrupting nightmares by officers, the largest impact on their sleep quality as a whole is their level of everyday stress at work. Officers in Maguen et al‘s (2009) study reported that working the night shift disrupts eating and sleeping. Even with adequate sleep, many officers still feel tired and depleted at work (Gershon et al 2009).
PTSD is a serious condition affecting some police officers, and it can be brought on by exposure to critical incidents, and compounded by routine stressors. Marmar et al (2006) examined the relationship between exposure to critical incidents and the development of PTSD among police officers and other first responders, concluding that a number of factors surrounding a critical incident can lead to the development of PTSD symptoms. Officers with significantly greater exposure to critical incidents were more likely to develop PTSD symptoms, as were those with greater emotional distress during the critical incident, greater dissociation after the critical incident, greater perceived threat to their own safety, and less preparation for the critical incident. Officers with lower social support and poor coping skills were more susceptible to PTSD, as were officers suffering from sleep disruption and poor quality of sleep. Maguen et al (2009) found that routine job stressors are an even greater predictor of development of PTSD symptoms than exposure to critical incidents or negative life events. Gershon et al (2009) also found a relationship between everyday stressors and the development of PTSD.
III. Systems Analysis
Identifying the Components of the Police System
Looking at police officers as the stock in the law enforcement system, inflow of stressors arrives from two different sources: organizational outsiders and organizational insiders. Officers process that inflow through a variety of methods involving a variety of factors, and the outflow is their response. An officer responding in a constructive, productive manner is the desired outflow. Response in the form of officers’ deviant behavior is a defective product (Bernard et al 2005). Defective products return to the system for further processing, continue to receive the inflow of stressors, continue to process that inflow poorly, overload the system, and increase the rate of production of defective products. System overload eventually leads to a general system breakdown, as IMPD is experiencing now with officers making the news for their deviant behavior on a very regular basis.
Several reinforcing feedback loops exist in this system. Officers may choose to deal with stress by withdrawing from family and friends, thus decreasing the amount of social support available to work through the stress. Dehumanizing the public leads to an “us vs. them” attitude among police, which leads to a public perception of uncaring officers, which leads to a “them vs. us” attitude among the public, which leads to officers further dehumanizing citizens. Emotional numbing can also lead to increased aggressiveness among officers, leading to use of excessive force, further deteriorating the relationship with the public. Emotional numbing further leads to an increased need for emotional stimulation, which can develop into deviant behavior that is detrimental to relationships with spouses, significant others, and friends. Stressors at home can lead to problems at work, which in turn contribute to stressors at home. Throw alcohol abuse, along with sleep disruption, into the equation and more reinforcing feedback loops pop up, with existing loops also gaining momentum.
The need for professional mental health services, as well as peer support, is often hindered by officers’ attitudes and the police culture that characterizes officers who express a need for help as being weak and unreliable (Wright 2010; Mays and Ruddell 2008; McCafferty et al 1992; Maslach and Jackson 1982), creating a balancing feedback loop.
Identifying Leverage Points for Intervention
What can be done to change this system so that fewer defective products are produced, officers’ stressors can be minimized, and the public can regain some trust in the police sworn to protect them?
Meadows (2008) identifies twelve leverage points in systems where a small change could result in a significant change in behavior. One of these leverage points is at the point of inflow, regulating numbers. With police officers as the stock, regulating numbers can be accomplished through the inflow process of selecting new officers. A higher-quality unit of input is more likely to process the stressors in a constructive manner and less likely to produce a defective product. Sellbom et al (2007) concluded that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)-specifically the Restructured Clinical (RC) scale-can be a useful tool in predicting behavioral and attitudinal problems in law enforcement applicants. In-depth conversations with a department psychiatrist may also bring potential problems with applicants to light. Requiring higher education standards among applicants would also be useful, since less-educated officers have been shown to experience higher levels of work-related stress and endure more long-term problems with alcohol abuse, leaving them more susceptible to deviant behavior than their more educated colleagues.
Meadows (2008) suggests modifying balancing feedback loops as a potential leverage point. To counter the departmental culture’s balancing of individual officers’ need for mental health services, departments must establish resources for professional help outside of the office-resources officers can utilize without the knowledge of their colleagues-such as the Police Officer Support Team (POST) within the Hendricks County, Indiana, Sheriff’s Department. Resources such as mental health counseling, substance abuse counseling, anger control counseling, and marriage or family counseling would be invaluable to officers, who may be more inclined to take advantage of these services if they could do so while avoiding negative peer pressure.
Another leverage point identified by Meadows involves slowing the growth of reinforcing feedback loops. Several reinforcing feedback loops have been identified here, and many of them involve officers dehumanizing citizens or developing an emotional numbness. By encouraging officer involvement in positive community activities (such as coaching youth sports leagues, involvement with churches, civic service groups, etc.), officers can be reminded that the “enemy” they deal with on a regular basis at work is only a small fraction of the general population, and that the vast majority of the public engages in positive, non-criminal behavior that doesn’t threaten the officer’s safety or life. Encouraging officers to develop friendships and relationships with people outside of law enforcement is another way to keep a fresh perspective of the positive qualities of society in the officer’s mind. These types of activities may help officers “humanize” people again and break the numerous reinforcing feedback loops relating to emotional numbing.
Altering information flows is Meadows’ next leverage point, and she notes that “missing information flows is one of the most common causes of system malfunction” (p. 157). Educating police officers on the warning signs of PTSD, depression, substance abuse, and other precursors to deviant behavior will increase awareness of these serious threats to officers’ mental and physical health. Developing anonymous means of reporting warning signs to supervisors increases the chances of intervention in the early stages of officers’ deviant behavior, since first-line supervisors are more inclined than patrol officers to take incidents of deviant behavior seriously and act on them (Schafer and Martinelli 2008). During the selection process, educating spouses and families of law enforcement applicants on the realities of a police officer’s life and other issues surrounding officers’ work environment would allow applicants and their families to make an educated decision on whether or not this is a good career choice for them. It would also increase the probability of spouses and families understanding their loved one’s mindset and behavior and creating a supportive home life. Officers must be trained on how to appropriately handle critical incidents to decrease the likelihood of them developing PTSD afterwards, and a mandatory debriefing system should be developed for officers involved in critical incidents, immediately after the critical incident and periodically afterwards for a period of time to assess how the officers are adjusting.
Leverage points in a system’s self-organization (Meadows 2008) can be utilized to lower stress levels among officers by improving working conditions. Shorter shifts would allow officers more time for sleep, family interaction, and recreation between shifts. If possible, allowing officer input in shift determination (hours, days off, etc.) would give officers a voice in the decision-making process. Encouraging officers to utilize vacation time-and increasing the amount of vacation time officers receive, if possible-would provide officers more time to depressurize outside of work. Keeping close-knit groups of officers together on the same shift schedule and same district could be beneficial in promoting peer support-although this is also one of the ingredients that can lead to corruption, so care must be taken in implementing this idea. A personal conversation with a local sheriff deputy who had moved from the night shift to the day shift revealed that he almost immediately regretted the move, as his fellow officers on the day shift were merely “coworkers” while he viewed his colleagues on the night shift as “family.” He has been miserable on the day shift and is about to return to the night shift as a result. Officers who view their colleagues as “family” may be more likely to utilize their peers for support in times of elevated stress than they are if they view their colleagues merely as “coworkers.”
One of the most difficult leverage points to manage-but one of the most powerful-according to Meadows is changing paradigms: the mindset of the system. Changing how police officers view their relationship with the public will be an exceedingly difficult but worthy task.
Cultural sensitivity training might help with race relations in a community, but to change the “us vs. them” mentality, officers have to resist the temptation to dehumanize the public they serve. An emphasis on community policing would be helpful so that officers and citizens alike can see each other as the human beings that they are, rather than as “enemies.” This may require a change in leadership in departments where upper-level management is not interested in a paradigm shift. The police have to take the first step in this process, since they are much more organized and centralized than the general public. Once they get some momentum built in community relations, the public would be more likely to respond in kind and begin changing their paradigm of police relations when their contact with officers is much more positive than negative.
Indianapolis Public Safety Director Frank Straub is attempting to change paradigms within IMPD, as evidenced by his November 12, 2010, address to IMPD officers (Indianapolis Star 2010b).
You, just like the sergeants, just like the chief, just like me, have an obligation every single day to protect this department and to protect every member of it. So when you see somebody that has a family problem, or has an alcohol problem, or is using Oxycontin, what is your obligation? In my opinion, it is to grab that person by the collar and say, “You need help. You don’t deserve to get fired. Your family doesn’t get to be destroyed. And I am going to bring you for help because I am a centurion. I have an obligation to protect you. I don’t want my badge to be tarnished. I don’t want the integrity of this department to be tarnished”… It is your obligation to save police officers. It’s not my obligation alone. It’s not the chief’s obligation alone. It is your obligation. This should be a department that never ever has another disciplinary charge brought against an officer. Because we are centurions and we save and protect our officers. We have an obligation to do that. You took an oath of office to protect and serve. Well, protect and serve. Let’s come together. Let’s man and woman up, and let’s start protecting this department. Not in a bad way, not in an us-against-them way, but in an us-we-take-care-of-ourselves, and by taking care of ourselves, we serve the public that pays our bills.
While Straub’s comments are likely what the public wants to hear, as well as what the administration wants to see from its troops, the organizational culture of IMPD-especially given its low morale and disenchantment with the current administration (Fraternal Order of the Police #86 2010)-may result in Straub’s pleas falling on deaf ears among the officers (Mays and Ruddell 2008).
As Aamodt (2008) writes, “things are always more complicated than they seem” (p. 1236). While exposure to critical incidents is indeed a considerable stressor in a police officer’s life, this paper’s initial hypothesis has been complicated by the evidence indicating that officers’ routine work environment also creates significant stressors. If not processed constructively by the officer, this combination of stressors can lead to deviant behavior.
Deviant behavior among police officers has contributed to the decay of public confidence in their police force. Research indicates that identifying and changing multiple leverage points in the law enforcement system-involving critical incident exposure, as well as routine work environment-in addressing, altering, and reporting deviant behavior would lead to a reduction in bad behavior among officers. Regulating numbers through an improved selection process is a start. Modifying balancing loops through programs like POST, and modifying reinforcing feedback loops through efforts to allow officers to “humanize” people again is also important. Education of officers and their significant others on the warning signs of precursors to deviant behavior would alter information flows. Some system self-organization through shorter shifts and officer input into shift determination could improve working conditions, and finally, changing paradigms within the organization would have the greatest impact on narrowing the gap between police and the public.
Changing these leverage points within the police system would likely lead to fewer defective products, in turn beginning the process of rebuilding trust and confidence among the citizens they serve.
Aamodt, M.G. 2008. “Reducing misconceptions and false beliefs in police and criminal psychology,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 35(10): 1231-1240. October.
Aamodt, M.G. and N.A. Stalnaker. 2006. “Police officer suicide: frequency and officer profiles.” Accessed November 17, 2010 at http://www.policeone.com/health-fitness/articles/137133-Police-Officer-Suicide-Frequency-and-officer-profiles/ .
Adams, G.A. and J. Buck. 2010. “Social stressors and strain among police officers: it’s not just the bad guys,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 37(9): 1030-1040. September.
Bernard, T.J., E.A. Paoline III, and P. Pare. 2005. “General systems theory and criminal justice,” Journal of Criminal Justice 33(3): 203-211.
Brilliant, J. 2009. “Officer charged with sexual misconduct with a minor,” WTHR.com. October 15. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.wthr.com/story/10886516/officer-charged-with-sexual-misconduct-with-a-minor?redirected=true
Coggeshall, W. 2010. “Danville police officer arrested for battery,” Hendricks County Flyer. October 25. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://flyergroup.com/local/x356201118/Danville-police-officer-arrested-for-battery
Dahl, J. 2010. “The police suicide problem.” Boston Globe, January 24, 2010. Accessed November 17, 2010 at http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/magazine/articles/2010/01/24/the_police_suicide_problem/ .
Fraternal Order of the Police #86. 2010. “2010 Climate Survey.” November 22. Accessed November 24, 2010 at http://www.fop86.org/ .
Gershon, R., B. Barocas, A.N. Canton, X. Li, and D. Vlahov. 2009. “Mental, physical, and behavioral outcomes associated with perceived work stress in police officers,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 36(3): 275-289. March.
Gillers, H. and J. Tuohy. 2010. “‘Unacceptable’ number of IMPD officers punished for misconduct,” Indianapolis Star. August 31. Accessed September 22, 2010 at http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=20108290411
Hendricks County Public Records. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://hendricks.nasaview.com/terms.php .
Indianapolis Star. 2010a. “Background on the Bisard case.” September 4. Accessed September 4, 2010 at http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=9999100813056 .
Indianapolis Star. 2010b. “Transcript of Straub’s talk to officers.” November 16. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=201011160366
Jackson, J. and B. Bradford. 2009. “Crime, policing, and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing,” The British Journal of Sociology 60(3): 493-521.
Jackson, S.E. and C. Maslach. 1982. “After-effects of job-related stress: families as victims,” Journal of Occupational Behavior 3(1): 63-77. January.
Maguen, S., T.J. Metzler, S.E. McCaslin, S.S. Inslicht, C. Henn-Haase, T.C. Neylan, and C.R. Marmar. 2009. “Routine work environment stress and PTSD symptoms in police officers,” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 197(10), 754-760. October.
Marmar, C.R., S.E. McCaslin, T.J. Metzler, S. Best, D.W. Weiss, J. Fagan, A. Liberman, N. Pole, C. Otte, R. Yehuda, D. Mohr, and T. Neylan. 2006. “Predictors of posttraumatic stress in police and other first responders,” Annals New York Academy of Sciences 1071, 1-18.
Mays, G.L. and R. Rudell. 2008. Making Sense of Criminal Justice: Policies and Practices. New York. Oxford University Press.
McCafferty, F.L., E. McCafferty, and M.A. McCafferty. 1992. “Stress and suicide in police officers: paradigm of occupational stress.” Southern Medical Journal 85(3), 233-243.
McCoy, S.P. and M.G. Aamodt. 2010. “A comparison of law enforcement divorce rates with those of other occupations,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology (25): 1-16.
Meadows, D.H. 2008 (1993). Thinking in Systems: a Primer. West River Junction, VT. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Miletich, S. and J. Sullivan. 2010. “Seattle officer’s kicking of suspect prompts call for federal civil-rights review,” Seattle Times. November 18. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2013465458_copkick19m.html
Miller, L. 2006. “Sex, lies, and police work.” Retrieved September 22, 2010 at http://www.policeone.com/health-fitness/articles/1182709-Sex-lies-police-work/
Pratt, C. “Why do police officers have such an outlandish rate of marital and domestic failure and calamity?” Retrieved September 22, 2010 at http://www.geocities.com/~halbrown/police_affairs.html .
Roach, A. 2007. “Danville police officer arrested for drunk driving in cruiser,” Hendricks County Flyer. May 23. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://flyergroup.com/local/x488946551/Danville-police-officer-arrested-for-drunk-driving-in-cruiser
Rodriguez, G. 2010. “Ministers, city leaders discuss IMPD reform,” WISHTV.com. November 17. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/ministers-city-leaders-discuss-impd-reform
Rossi, D. 2010. “Phoenix Police: we are not a corrupt department,” KPHO.com. November 12. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.kpho.com/news/25778572/detail.html
Ryckaert, V. 2010. “Latest charges against officers add to IMPD’s problems,” Indianapolis Star. November 16. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=201011160318 .
Schafer, J.A. and T.J. Martinelli. 2008. “First-line supervisor’s perceptions of police integrity: The measurement of police integrity revisited,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 31(2): 306-323.
Sellbom, M., G.L. Fischler, and Y.S. Ben-Porath. 2007. “Identifying MMPI-2 predictors of police officer integrity and misconduct,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 34(8): 985-1004.
Skogan, W.G. and T.L. Meares. 2004. “Lawful policing.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593: 66-83. May.
TheIndyChannel.com. 2010. “Chief: officer fired in wake of police brutality claim.” June 10. Accessed November 22, 2010 at http://www.theindychannel.com/news/23855848/detail.html
Wright, B. 2010. “Civilianising the ‘blue code’? An examination of attitudes to misconduct in the police extended family,” International Journal of Police Science and Management 12(3): 339-356.