In 1874, African American graduates of the normal and industrial schools and the colleges were fanning out from the urban centers of their respective states and taking up teaching positions in more rural communities. Julia Hayden was one of those graduates. At age 17, she was eligible to assume a teaching position. She applied to and was accepted by a community school in Tennessee. What she experienced in that small community was not was she was trained for[KM1] . Ms. Hayden was gunned down on her third day of the job. What Ms. Hayden experienced was not an isolated event. It was not caused by a student or a mentally disturbed outsider. What Ms. Hayden was the victim of, was endemic to what teachers of black students [KM2] were experiencing across the Southern United States during the turbulent period following the civil war and for decades thereafter.
As the white supremacist groups gained momentum after the civil war[KM3] , they targeted African Americans with their hatred. A violent effort was undertaken to eliminate any efforts of advancement of African Americans’ education and as such, teachers of African American students were targeted for harassment, ridicule, violence and even murder. Their school houses were burned down, their homes destroyed and their lives ruined. Yet, despite the dangers, and the attacks, [KM4] African Americans understood that education was the key to advancement in the American society. Despite these challenges, African Americans succeeded in moving ever forward towards achieving a universal level of education and literacy[KM5][KM6] .
When we examine the violence [KM7] that emerged following the civil war, it is important to understand that a fundamental change in the way of southern life that occurred as a result of the war. In 1860, Harpers Weekly printed an article on the then current economic bubble occurring; the price of slaves.  The prices of slaves had doubled due to high demand and low supply. No different than the internet bubble, or the housing bubble of the 20th and 21st century, owners of these slave assets were giddy over their new fortunes. In 1860, about 385,000 slave owners existed in the South, about 46,000 of whom were planters; slaves were estimated to number 3 million. 
Five years later the southern way of life was greatly altered with the surrender of the Confederate States of America. For the slave owners, many family members were wounded or killed as a result of the civil war. Fortunes, businesses, and homes were diminished or even destroyed. Their former slaves had been freed and were now supposed to be considered their equals. The former Confederate States now found themselves occupied by a triumphant Northern army, intent on ensuring the southern way of life was permanently altered. This series of events would set the stage for the development of a host of white radical groups to form, intent on delaying or even halting the current social changes occurring, one of which was the educating of former slaves.
Prior to 1865, the teaching of a black person in the southern United States was considered criminal. For an African American person to undertake an education the price of his education if caught was punishable by force[KM8] . However, despite this threat the slaves still undertook the dangerous task of trying to learn. John Sella Martin would shoot marbles with white boys, beat them, and then exchange their marbles for reading lessons.  Sympathetic slave owners would also provide impromptu teaching. Mr. Washington, in his travels, found African American students who understood some measure of Greek, Latin and French, languages of the southern aristocracy.  However, not all were so lucky and many would suffer at the hands of their owners. This punishment would often consist of beatings, whippings or the loss of a digit on a hand.  On occasion, slave owners felt it necessary to use extreme force. Papa Dallas was one of those exceptions. At about age 6, Papa Dallas was caught trying to learn the alphabet. The slave owner assembled his slaves and had Dallas beaten in front of them. Then to ensure that the slaves understood how serious their owner considered the act of learning, the slave owner had Papa Dallas’s eyes burned out. 
These violent acts of oppression had their desired effect. [KM9] By the end of 1865, only 20% of African Americans could read and write, compared to 90% of whites. African Americans understood the painful fact that to function as an equal in America, they would have to be educated and they understood they were not.[KM10] Meanwhile, White politicians and leaders were changing the playing field and taking advantage of the former slave’s lack of education. In 1865, whites introduced laws referred to as Black codes, which were designed to take advantage of the former slaves from a legal perspective.  The economic shift from slave worker to labor workers required the use of monetary wage contracts, contracts that black men often did not understand due to their inability to read. 
There was also the possibility of African American men even being able to vote in America, however the right to vote would depend on one’s ability to read and write. An advertisement to the Freedman published on July 16, 1865 encouraged the men to become educated as soon as possible: “Possible there may be an agreement made, that those who can read and write shall vote, and no others. Urge, therefore, every colored man at once to learn to read and write. His right to vote may very likely depend on that. Let him no lose no time, but learn to read and write at once.” [KM11]
Unable to read the labor contracts presented to them, the former slaves were required to sign a contract they could not understand. Civil contracts were enforceable by criminal law during this period. And the violation of these laws, and the many other Black Codes that were introduced, could result in severe punishment, which could mean sentencing to a convict labor camp. Laborcamps made slavery look good. Owners of local industries could lease men to work, often 14 hours a day, six to seven days a week. Beatings never ceased, men were fed substandard rations and often slept on dirt.  George Washington Cable, a southern investigative reporter, found that the death rates of some of the Southernslave camps approached 45%. In the Northern Camps, the death rate was about 1%. Men, who were sentenced longer than 10 years, did not survive. 
African Americans understood that to function in America, they would have to be educated. They knew they had been denied their freedom, dignity, personal safety, and their education. African Americans were intent on getting their educations. “Few people who were not right in the midst of the scene can form any exact idea of the intense desire which the people of my race showed for education. It was a whole race trying to go to school. Few were too young, and none were too old, to make the attempt to learn,” said Booker T. Washington.  They understood that education was as vital as food, shelter, and clothing; it would be necessary for getting ahead. 
Recognizing this void, a joint public and private initiative was undertaken by the Federal government and northern benevolent groups. Working together, lands were purchased, school houses were built and schools were staffed with white instructors, often missionaries from the North. Classes were held during the day, at night and on Sundays. Students young and old began the undertaking of education with great enthusiasm. In the early 1870s, 16 year old Booker T. Washington, consumed with passion for education, was determined to study at the then famous Hampton Normal And Agricultural Institute in Hampton Virginia. Washington set out from Malden, West Virginia; it was a 500 mile journey consisting of trains, coaches and walking. When Washington ran out of money he slept under sidewalks and worked as a day laborer in order to make enough money to renew his journey.  Eventually the Freedmans Bureau would establish 740 schools with over 1000 black and white teachers in the Southern United States. 
In addition to the primary schools, colleges were also beginning to be formed up with the intent of training additional teachers to filter out to rural communities and keep the momentum going. Central College had been founded by missionaries from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1867. The school worked in conjunction with the Freedman’s Bureau who provided resources for the building of classrooms while themissionaries provided staffing and ongoing support.  In 1874, the college had begun training a cadre of their brightest students to become teachers. Julia Hayden was one of them when she graduated from Central College at age 17.
The spark had been set, and the former slaves both young and old took to education and quickly overwhelmed the existing infrastructure. Young Booker T. Washington returned home to Malden, West Virginia and began teaching. “I had a day class that consisted of about 90 pupils, a night class, and two Sunday Schools and no assistants”.  Mr. Washington found students as old as 70 years of age, and found a common underlying theme among the students. The students believed that achieving an education, any education, would free the former slaves from a life of manual labor. 
The pace of social change was too rapid for many whites, entrenched in a certain lifestyle that had existed for hundreds of years. African Americans weresuddenly to be treated as equals to whites, allowed to own land, given the right to vote, and educated. Planters, who depended on cheap labor, fought black schooling fearing that educated blacks would leave for higher paying jobs.  All the ingredients were in place for a conflict of social disorder. What was lacking was a vehicle of destruction. In 1865 that vehicle for social destruction was given life in Pulaski Tennessee. It was here the Ku Klux Klan was officially formed and would become the role model for others to follow. The phrase Ku Klux is derived from the Greek word kuklos, meaning a band. Ironically, according to the founders there was no malicious intent in the beginning. However, the social fraternity attracted all sorts of individuals, many with a history of violence such as Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who was known for having his troops slaughter captured black soldiers. 
However, the Klan did not have a monopoly on rural terrorism. They were joined by a flurry of lesser known groups each with its own name and hierarchy. These included “The Knights of the White Camellia”, “The White Man’s League”, “the White-cappers” and assorted rifle clubs. Each group varied in its size and propensity for violence, however “the White Man’s League” was considered to be exceptionally violent and was responsible for the death of Ms. Hayden. 
Perhaps the most disturbing trend of these groups was the attraction of men of authority to them. Local politicians, business owners, judges and law enforcement officers began flocking to these groups, and in doing so, the social stigma and threat of law enforcement intervention continued to diminish in proportion to the size of the group. Lacking the normal societal methods of controlling immoral behavior, these white supremacist groups had the opportunity to flourish and grow. As the groups gained in size and strength they launched their attacks against the African Americans and anyone who gave aid or came to their assistance. With an effective communication network, the terror groups could summon upwards of 200 men for their night raids.
The school houses, students and the teachers made for easy targets. Black school children, jeered in the streets and pelted with stones, often had to be escorted by their parents  . The White Man’s League launched an extremely violent campaign throughout Tennessee where Julia Hayden fell victim to them[KM12] .  In 1866, 12 school houses were burned down in Memphis.  The League was reported to be whipping and even branding school teachers who, fearing for their lives, were driven from the schools.  The Ku Klux Klan was also burning churches and schools and lynching school teachers  .
Lynchings were a particularly brutal method of murder. Often reserved for suspected criminals, the Klan had decided teachers were within their acceptable targets of victimization. The lynchings[KM13] depicted on television have white washed [KM14] our understanding of how brutal these events could be, or how violent men can be against one another when the fear of punishment is nonexistent. Consider the local paper “Greenwood Observer’s” account of one such event: “The mob sliced his body with knives, burned his body with red hot irons, hung him by the neck until he almost choked to death, then revived him and continued the torture. Next they dragged him to the home of the victim’s parents, where several thousand people were waiting. When they stopped in front of the house, a woman came out and plunged a butcher knife into his heart”. 
Against such an organized network, resistance was minimal and ineffective and often resulted in an escalation of violence. In 1875, in Vicksburg Mississippi, White Leaguers went to the home of the African American School Superintendent Cardoza and ordered him to resign, and threatened to lynch him if he refused. Mr. Cardoza fled the scene and promptly summoned assistance from the communities Sheriff, who was also African American. When the Sheriff returned with support which consisted of both white and African Americans to confront the White Leaguers, the White Leaguers went on a rampage and killed an estimated 100-200 African Americans. Witness reported that the African Americans offered minimal resistance and many were killed as they cowered in fear or were fleeing the scene. No one was arrested in the incident. 
The years following the Civil War were not kind to African Americans. During a period of time where tremendous social advancement should have been achieved, it was instead a period of great suffering. African Americans suffered tremendous loss of life and property at the hands of the white supremacist groups who unchecked, ran rampant at will[KM15] . African American men, who had been given the right to vote, feared for their personal safety and often chose not to. African American families were migrating west and north in order to flee the violence and anarchy erupting in the southern states. Facing such obstacles it would come to no surprise if African Americans were also failing in their educational endeavors. However, failing at an education was one area that they would not yield to.
African Americans showed considerable headway against their determined foes. With the introduction of labor contracts, African Americans turned the tables on their white employers by introducing educational clauses in the contracts demanding an education for their families.  Despite the violence and challenges, the teachers kept coming. By 1901, 27,435 teachers were teaching in African American Schools, and 99% were African American, reported Harpers Weekly  . African Americans Illiteracy would drop by almost 10% every decade following (which one?).  Booker T. Washington summed up the current state of race relations in a simple phrase “Today there are no such organizations in the south, and the fact that such ever existed is almost forgotten by both races. There are few places in the south now where public sentiment would permit such organizations to exist. Sadly, the 20th century would prove Mr. Washington wrong, as the Klan would make resurgence in 1915, and many more dark chapters would be written in American race relations.[KM16]
 Harpers Weekly citation needed.
 John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweinger, Runaway Slaves, Rebels on the Plantation, New York Oxford 1999 pg 282.
 Tonya Bolden, Tell the Children our Story, New York, Abrams Books, 2001 pg 40.
 Booker T Washington, Up From Slavery, New York Barnes and Noble, 2008 65.
 Ibid pg
 Ibid pg 41.
 Black codes….
 Robin D.G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, A history of African Americans to 1880, New York Oxford Press, 2000, 258.
 Robin D.G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, A history of African Americans to 1880, New York Oxford Press, 2000, 242.
 Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003) 54
 Ibid 55.
 Robin D.G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, A history of African Americans to 1880, New York Oxford Press, 2000, 275.
 Tonya Bolden, Tell the Children our Story, New York, Abrams Books, 2001 41.
 Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003) 42.
 Robin D.G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, A history of African Americans to 1880, New York Oxford Press, 2000, 274.
 Bobby L Lovett, Walden University (1868-1925)”, A Profile of African Americans in Tennessee History, Nashville: Tennessee State University, accessed July 29, 2009 http://www.tnstate.edu/library/digital/walden.htm
 Booker T. Washington, The Story of my life and work, New York Barnes and Noble, 2008. 20
 Booker T Washington, Up From Slavery, New York Barnes and Noble, 2008 46.
 Robin D.G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, A history of African Americans to 1880, New York Oxford Press, 2000, 275.
 Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003)
 Harpers Weekly, Louisiana and the Rule of Terror, October 3, 1874,
 Tonya Bolden, Tell the Children our Story, New York, Abrams Books, 2001 46.
 Harpers Weekly, Louisiana and the Rule of Terror, October 3, 1874,
 Tonya Bolden, Tell the Children our Story, New York, Abrams Books, 2001 59.
 Harpers Weekly, The same Old Pirate Afloat Again, 1874, 09/19 pg 778a
 Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003) 25.
 Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003) 74.
 Harpers Weekly, The dangerous Classes at the South, 1875, January 09, pg 37.
 Citation needed.
 Harpers Weekly, Negro Education, 1900, 02/10 pg 120
 Citation needed
 Booker T Washington, Up From Slavery, New York Barnes and Noble, 2008
[KM1] This phrasing seems too mild… she was murdered; no one is trained for that… Reword this to hint that you are about to reveal an atrocity to the reader…
[KM2] I would suggest a complete rewording of this sentence, something like “Ms. Hayden was just one victim of the hate crimes perpetuated against teachers of African American students throughout the Southern US…”
[KM3] Shouldn’t “civil war” be capitalized when its being used to refer to a specific military event (the American Civil War)?
[KM4] The next two sentences don’t lead in to your next paragraph; they sound more like a concluding sentences; move them to the end of the paper
[KM5] Really? I don’t know if I agree with this statement… They have succeeded in moving forward, that’s true, but this statement suggests that they have achieved a universal level of literacy… equal to whom? Other African Americans? Whites? Is this a true suggestion?
[KM6] I suggest a wording of “Despite these challenges, African Americans continue to move forward towards achieving…”
[KM7] This paragraph needs a transition from the previous one; removing the last 2 sentences of the preceding paragraph would help
[KM8] Awkwardly worded
[KM9] Nice transition!
[KM10] Wording is a little awkward
[KM11] This paragraph should come after the one that follows it, not before it
[KM12] This is unnecessary and repetitive; I suggest deleting this phrase
[KM13] not possessive
[KM14] I think you should choose a different term
[KM16] This seems like a negative ending to your paper and doesn’t agree with the statements you make in the 2nd paragraph… I would suggest rewording this and moving those earlier sentences here, to end on a more positive note